Note the similarity with the images presented in Smith's Recognizable patterns of Human Malformation 
History: First reported in 1975 by Antley and Bixler
Prevalence: Rare, less than 30 cases up to date. The count is made difficult by the fact that several cases have been reported twice in the literature in different journals but by the same authors (  ,22 ), (,20 ) and (  ,18 ) or may have been reincluded in subsequent publications (  ,  ).
Etiology: Autosomal recessive.
Pathogenesis: Several pathogenesis have been suggested:
A few cases have been possibly linked to congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with pregnancy luteoma
The cardinal findings include the midfacial hypoplasia, craniosynostosis and the radiohumeral synostosis. Sonographic and other findings are listed in the table below  ,,  ,:
· Frontal bossing
· Proptosis of the eyes (=exophtalmos)
· Anteverted nostrils
· Choanal atresia or stenosis
· Midface hypoplasia
· Synostosis of the radius & humerus and less commonly the ulna and humerus
· Narrow rib cage
· Bowing of the femur / ulna
· Arachnodactyly with bulbous finger tip
· Hypoplasia of the body of the scapula 
· Multiple contractures
· Cardiac defects
· Imperforate anus
· Urogenital anomalies (ambiguous genitalia)
The prenatal diagnosis was made several times3 ,16 ,.
Differential diagnosis: Many of the syndromes with craniosynostosis such as Crouzon and Pfeiffer have similar appearances.
Associated anomalies: See table above. There is one case with associated trisomy 21  .
Prognosis: One third of affected children are alive, and some have had quite satisfactory development. Some patients with the syndrome have normal intelligence, which suggests a normally developing brain.
Recurrence risk: 25%
Management: Early survival depends in the release of the upper airway obstruction. Longer-term survival depends on the severity of associated malformations. Cranial vault remodeling to relieve craniosynostosis is important for the prevention of mental impairment22 ,  ,  .
FACES: The National Craniofacial Association
The Children's Craniofacial Association
 Jones (Ed.) Antley-Bixler syndrome in Smith's Recognizable patterns of Human Malformation p 378
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